RA-05 Vulnerability Monitoring and Scanning
a. Monitor and scan for vulnerabilities in the system and hosted applications ra-5_prm_1 and when new vulnerabilities potentially affecting the system are identified and reported;
b. Employ vulnerability monitoring tools and techniques that facilitate interoperability among tools and automate parts of the vulnerability management process by using standards for:
1. Enumerating platforms, software flaws, and improper configurations;
2. Formatting checklists and test procedures; and
3. Measuring vulnerability impact;
c. Analyze vulnerability scan reports and results from vulnerability monitoring;
d. Remediate legitimate vulnerabilities ra-05_odp.03 in accordance with an organizational assessment of risk;
e. Share information obtained from the vulnerability monitoring process and control assessments with ra-05_odp.04 to help eliminate similar vulnerabilities in other systems; and
f. Employ vulnerability monitoring tools that include the capability to readily update the vulnerabilities to be scanned.
|ra-5_prm_1||organization-defined frequency and/or randomly in accordance with organization-defined process|
|ra-05_odp.01||frequency and/or randomly in accordance with organization-defined process|
|ra-05_odp.02||frequency and/or randomly in accordance with organization-defined process|
|ra-05_odp.04||personnel or roles|
Security categorization of information and systems guides the frequency and comprehensiveness of vulnerability monitoring (including scans). Organizations determine the required vulnerability monitoring for system components, ensuring that the potential sources of vulnerabilities—such as infrastructure components (e.g., switches, routers, guards, sensors), networked printers, scanners, and copiers—are not overlooked. The capability to readily update vulnerability monitoring tools as new vulnerabilities are discovered and announced and as new scanning methods are developed helps to ensure that new vulnerabilities are not missed by employed vulnerability monitoring tools. The vulnerability monitoring tool update process helps to ensure that potential vulnerabilities in the system are identified and addressed as quickly as possible. Vulnerability monitoring and analyses for custom software may require additional approaches, such as static analysis, dynamic analysis, binary analysis, or a hybrid of the three approaches. Organizations can use these analysis approaches in source code reviews and in a variety of tools, including web-based application scanners, static analysis tools, and binary analyzers.
Vulnerability monitoring includes scanning for patch levels; scanning for functions, ports, protocols, and services that should not be accessible to users or devices; and scanning for flow control mechanisms that are improperly configured or operating incorrectly. Vulnerability monitoring may also include continuous vulnerability monitoring tools that use instrumentation to continuously analyze components. Instrumentation-based tools may improve accuracy and may be run throughout an organization without scanning. Vulnerability monitoring tools that facilitate interoperability include tools that are Security Content Automated Protocol (SCAP)-validated. Thus, organizations consider using scanning tools that express vulnerabilities in the Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures (CVE) naming convention and that employ the Open Vulnerability Assessment Language (OVAL) to determine the presence of vulnerabilities. Sources for vulnerability information include the Common Weakness Enumeration (CWE) listing and the National Vulnerability Database (NVD). Control assessments, such as red team exercises, provide additional sources of potential vulnerabilities for which to scan. Organizations also consider using scanning tools that express vulnerability impact by the Common Vulnerability Scoring System (CVSS).
Vulnerability monitoring includes a channel and process for receiving reports of security vulnerabilities from the public at-large. Vulnerability disclosure programs can be as simple as publishing a monitored email address or web form that can receive reports, including notification authorizing good-faith research and disclosure of security vulnerabilities. Organizations generally expect that such research is happening with or without their authorization and can use public vulnerability disclosure channels to increase the likelihood that discovered vulnerabilities are reported directly to the organization for remediation.
Organizations may also employ the use of financial incentives (also known as "bug bounties" ) to further encourage external security researchers to report discovered vulnerabilities. Bug bounty programs can be tailored to the organization’s needs. Bounties can be operated indefinitely or over a defined period of time and can be offered to the general public or to a curated group. Organizations may run public and private bounties simultaneously and could choose to offer partially credentialed access to certain participants in order to evaluate security vulnerabilities from privileged vantage points.
- ISO 29147 International Organization for Standardization/International Electrotechnical Commission 29147:2018, *Information technology—Security techniques—Vulnerability disclosure* , October 2018.
- SP 800-40 Souppaya MP, Scarfone KA (2013) Guide to Enterprise Patch Management Technologies. (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD), NIST Special Publication (SP) 800-40, Rev. 3.
- SP 800-53A Joint Task Force Transformation Initiative (2014) Assessing Security and Privacy Controls in Federal Information Systems and Organizations: Building Effective Assessment Plans. (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD), NIST Special Publication (SP) 800-53A, Rev. 4, Includes updates as of December 18, 2014.
- SP 800-70 Quinn SD, Souppaya MP, Cook MR, Scarfone KA (2018) National Checklist Program for IT Products: Guidelines for Checklist Users and Developers. (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD), NIST Special Publication (SP) 800-70, Rev. 4.
- SP 800-115 Scarfone KA, Souppaya MP, Cody A, Orebaugh AD (2008) Technical Guide to Information Security Testing and Assessment. (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD), NIST Special Publication (SP) 800-115.
- SP 800-126 Waltermire DA, Quinn SD, Booth H, III, Scarfone KA, Prisaca D (2018) The Technical Specification for the Security Content Automation Protocol (SCAP): SCAP Version 1.3. (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD), NIST Special Publication (SP) 800-126, Rev. 3.
- IR 7788 Singhal A, Ou X (2011) Security Risk Analysis of Enterprise Networks Using Probabilistic Attack Graphs. (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD), NIST Interagency or Internal Report (IR) 7788.
- IR 8011-4 Dempsey KL, Takamura E, Eavy P, Moore G (2020) Automation Support for Security Control Assessments: Volume 4: Software Vulnerability Management. (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD), NIST Interagency or Internal Report (IR) 8011, Volume 4.
- IR 8023 Dempsey KL, Paulsen C (2015) Risk Management for Replication Devices. (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD), NIST Interagency or Internal Report (IR) 8023.
Control Enhancements 11
- RA-05(01) Update Tool Capability
- RA-05(02) Update Vulnerabilities to Be Scanned L M H P
- RA-05(03) Breadth and Depth of Coverage L M H P
- RA-05(04) Discoverable Information L M H P
- RA-05(05) Privileged Access L M H P
- RA-05(06) Automated Trend Analyses L M H P
- RA-05(07) Automated Detection and Notification of Unauthorized Components
- RA-05(08) Review Historic Audit Logs L M H P
- RA-05(09) Penetration Testing and Analyses
- RA-05(10) Correlate Scanning Information L M H P
- RA-05(11) Public Disclosure Program L M H P
Related controls 17
- CA-02 Control Assessments L M H P
- CA-07 Continuous Monitoring L M H P
- CA-08 Penetration Testing L M H P
- CM-02 Baseline Configuration L M H P
- CM-04 Impact Analyses L M H P
- CM-06 Configuration Settings L M H P
- CM-08 System Component Inventory L M H P
- RA-02 Security Categorization L M H P
- RA-03 Risk Assessment L M H P
- SA-11 Developer Testing and Evaluation L M H P
- SA-15 Development Process, Standards, and Tools L M H P
- SC-38 Operations Security L M H P
- SI-02 Flaw Remediation L M H P
- SI-03 Malicious Code Protection L M H P
- SI-04 System Monitoring L M H P
- SI-07 Software, Firmware, and Information Integrity L M H P
- SR-11 Component Authenticity L M H P